José Guadalupe Gallegos (April 13, 1828 – May 18, 1867) was a native New Mexican military leader, county sheriff, rancher and politician. In 1854 he served as brigadier general in the volunteer Mounted Militia of New Mexico (Territory) formed for the purpose of protecting communities against Native American attacks. Prior to the Battle of Glorieta Pass, he was a Union field and staff Colonel in the Civil War, serving as commander of the 3rd New Mexico Volunteer Infantry and as commander of the Hatch's Ranch military post. He represented San Miguel County in four of the six Assemblies of the Territorial Legislature between 1855-1861 and served as House Speaker and as Council President. José was one of the founding members of the Historical Society of New Mexico and was a founding associate in the incorporation of the Montezuma Copper Mining Company of Santa Fé, New Mexico the New Mexican Railway Company and the New Mexico Wool Manufacturing Company.