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Romance languages

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  • Rhaeto-Romance languages
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    Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland. The name "Rhaeto-Romance" refers to the former Roman province of Rhaetia. The linguistic basis of the subfamily is discussed in the so-called Questione Ladina. The Rhaeto-Romance languages form a group of Romance languages in the Alps region of northern Italy and Switzerland. Initially studied by Italian Linguist Graziadio Ascoli in 1873, Ascoli found these languages to share a number of intricacies and believed they belonged to a specific linguistic group. What distinguishes Rhaeto-Romance languages from Italian and other Western languages are its phonemic vowel length (long stressed vowels), consonant formation, and a central rounded vowel series. A few notable examples of these languages are Romansh, Friulian and Ladin, which are officially recognized alongside German, French and Italian, by the Swiss and Italian governments respectively. In total there are about 660,000 speakers of the Rhaeto-Romance languages combined, the vast majority of whom speak Friulian at approximately half a million.
  • Istro-Romanian language
    Istro-Romanian language Balkan Romance language spoken in the region of Istria, Croatia
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    The Istro-Romanian language (Istro Romanian: Rumârește) is a Balkan Romance language, spoken in a few villages and hamlets in the peninsula of Istria in Croatia, as well as in diaspora, most notably in Italy, Sweden, Germany, Northern and Southern America, and Australia.
  • French-based creole languages Family of creole languages for which French is the lexifier
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    A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier. Most often this lexifier is not modern French but rather a 17th-century koiné of French from Paris, the French Atlantic harbors, and the nascent French colonies. French-based creole languages are spoken natively by millions of people worldwide, primarily in the Americas and on archipelagos throughout the Indian Ocean. This article also contains information on French pidgin languages, contact languages that lack native speakers.
  • Galician-Portuguese
    Galician-Portuguese West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages
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    Galician-Portuguese (Galician: galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, Portuguese: galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. Alternatively, it can be considered a historical period of the Galician and Portuguese languages.
  • Tuscan dialect
    Tuscan dialect Italo-Dalmatian variety mainly spoken in the Italian region of Tuscany
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    Tuscan (Italian: dialetto toscano locally: vernacolo) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties of Romance mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
  • Mozarabic language
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    Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin and early Romance dialects spoken in Hispania from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken until the 13th century when it was displaced, mostly by Castilian (which became modern Spanish).
  • Cantabrian dialect Transitional Iberian dialect
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    Cantabrian (cántabru, in Cantabrian) is a group of dialects belonging to Astur-Leonese. It is indigenous to the territories in and surrounding the Autonomous Community of Cantabria, in Northern Spain.
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    Extremaduran (Extremaduran: estremeñu Spanish: extremeño) is a group of vernacular Romance dialects, related to the Asturleonese language, spoken in Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca. It is difficult to establish the exact boundary between Extremaduran and the Spanish varieties spoken in most of Extremadura.
  • Galician-Asturian
    Galician-Asturian Romance dialects in a Galician/Portuguese–Asturian continuum
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    Galician-Asturian or Eonavian (official name by Act 1/1998, March 23 of Principality of Asturias; autonym: fala; Asturian: eonaviegu, gallego-asturianu; Galician: eonaviego, galego-asturiano) is a set of Romance dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends into the zone of Asturias between the Eo River and Navia River (or more specifically the Eo and the Frejulfe River). The dialects have been variously classified as the northeastern varieties of Galician, as a linguistic group of its own, or as a Galician dialect of transition to the Astur-Leonese group.
  • Sassarese language
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    Sassarese (Sassaresu or Turritanu) is an Italo-Dalmatian language and transitional variety between Sardinian and Corsican. It is regarded as a Corso–Sardinian language because of Sassari's historic ties with Tuscany and geographical proximity to Corsica. Despite the robust Sardinian influences (in terms of vocabulary and phonology, as well as syntax), it still keeps its Corsican (and therefore Tuscan) roots, which closely relate it to Gallurese; the latter is linguistically considered a Corsican dialect despite its geographical location, although this claim is a matter of controversy. It has several similarities to Italian and in particular the old Italian dialects from Tuscany.
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