Ashkenazi Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז, romanized: Yehudei Ashkenaz; lt. "Jews of the German Lands"), also known as the Ashkenazic Jews or by using the Hebrew plural suffix -im, Ashkenazim[a] are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium. The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish (a Germanic language with Jewish elements including the Hebrew alphabet), developed after they had moved from the European lands of Germany and France during the Middle Ages, and into northern and Eastern Europe. For centuries, they used Hebrew in Europe only as a sacred language, until the revival of Hebrew as a common language in 20th century Israel.
Throughout their numerous centuries living in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to its philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music and science. This list has been viewed 4,694 times.
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