Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 16, 1877 – November 9, 1934) was an American publicity expert and a founder of modern public relations. The term Public Relations is to be found for the first time in the preface of the 1897 Yearbook of Railway Literature. Is best known for his public relations work with the Rockefeller family. His first major client was the Pennsylvania railroad, followed by numerous major railroads such as the New York Central, the Baltimore and Ohio, and the Harriman lines. He established the Association of Railroad Executives as a public relations service for the entire industry. Lee provided advice to major industrial corporations, including steel, automobiles, tobacco, meatpacking, and rubber, as well as public utilities, banks, and even foreign governments. Lee pioneered the use of internal magazines to maintain employee morale, as well as management newsletters, stockholder reports, and news releases to the media. He did a great deal of pro bono work, and during World War I, he became the publicity director for the American Red Cross.